The following glossary of technical terms (mostly offices and dignities) is based primarily on definitions given in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. A. P. Kazhdan (New York – Oxford 1991) and in N. Oikonomides, Les listes de préséance byzantines des IXe et Xe siècles
(Paris 1972). It is intended as a general guide for the non-specialist
user. The handbooks tend to define many offices by talking of the
surviving evidence, the dating and the position of each office within
the hierarchy. They give less information about the specific duties of
the official, which are often unclear and seem to vary over time. There
is evidence in the database to help answer such questions, but we leave
its exploitation to others.
official in control of navigation.
supplementary tax imposed on a village.
commander of foreign military contingents.
sum of taxes due by the taxpayer on a piece of land.
fiscal designation for a peasant who owned little or no land and no plough animals (pl. aktemones).
initially a fiscal official; later the title of a physician.
communal tax liability paid for poorer neighbours or taxpayers who fled the land.
monastic official, presumably in charge of a monastery’s vineyards.
lector, member of the minor clergy.
fiscal official in charge of cadaster revisions.
term referring to someone involved with salaries partly paid in kind rather than with cash.
dignity ranking between a patrikios and a magistros.
official in charge of imperial responses and letters sent abroad.
tax on maritime commerce.
deputy official in various government departments.
official who had held in the past the post of eidikos.
official in charge of a monastery’s warehouse (apotheke).
leader of a group of monasteries.
generic term denoting a magnate or powerful official, a foreign ruler, and technical term for governor of a city/region or head of a department.
monk in charge of official visitors’ quarters at a monastery.
tagma (regiment) created by Alexios I in 1090/91.
subordinate treasury official, probably dealing with fiscal/economic matters.
courtier in charge of protocol at imperial banquets (also called atriklines).
wife of an asekretis.
title for rulers of cities/regions in the Islamic world (lit. father of the king).
empress; title used for the wife of the reigning emperor.
office of uncertain nature, perhaps identical with sebastophoros.
title used for the reigning emperor.
complex of buildings comprising a courtyard.
one of the principal imperial titles, used to distinguish the main emperor from co-emperors.
commander in chief of the army.
unleavened bread used in the eucharist by the Latin and Armenian churches, and the subject of much controversy between Byzantines (the Orthodox church uses leavened bread) and Latins from the 11th c.
official at a monastery in charge of wine or the wine-cellar.
office of protector of the emperor (lit. father of the emperor).
principal title of the Byzantine emperor, sometimes used for foreign rulers too in Byzantine sources.
imperial title used to distinguish the main emperor from co-emperors.
official dealing with financial matters; all-purpose agent of the emperor.
principal title of a Byzantine empress.
ecclesiastical official in charge of books, librarian (lit. keeper of books).
fiscal designation for a peasant who owned one ox (pl. boidatoi).
amount of land that can be ploughed by one ox (pl. boidotopia).
pliers-like instrument used for the impression of the dies on a lead blank in order to produce a seal.
official inspector under the eparch, in charge of controlling product quality, certified with a seal (boulla).
inventory of possessions, often precious objects belonging to a monastery or church.
religious spiritual leader of Islam.
beneficiary of a charistike, that is the grant of a monastery to an individual for a restricted period of time; the charistikarios held administrative power over the monastery’s estates and gained financially from his position.
ecclesiastical official in charge of archival documents; at Constantinople, principal assistant to the patriarch.
subaltern official with archival and fiscal duties; also ecclesiastical office similar to chartophylax.
gold coin issued after the coinage reform of Alexios I and taking its name from the form of the depicted emperor’s labarum (pl. chichata).
measure of calculation indicating a quantity of one thousand units, often 1,000 modioi (pl. chiliades).
assistant bishop in rural areas, subject to the local bishop.
fiscal or juridical entity comprising a rural settlement.
official with duties related to precious objects.
official in imperial goldsmiths’ workshop.
generic term for various types of documents bearing the emperor’s gold seal; they usually pertain to the grant of privileges.
state workshop producing gold embroidery for the costumes of the emperor and high-ranking officials.
low-ranking official under the protasekretis.
leader of a circus faction or a choir leading acclamations of the emperor; also leader of the mob.
fiscal designation of uncertain nature for peasants (perhaps those settled on imperial domains and paying their taxes to the fisc).
basic tax on land due to the state treasury.
unarmed man appointed to follow a military contingent and help wounded soldiers.
title ranked immediately below that of emperor; also epithet applied to high-ranking ecclesiastics, aristocrats and to the emperor.
subordinate church official (priest, deacon).
deputy official in any institution (lit. second).
tax on money borrowed but not used for its stated purpose.
rare term, presumably a dignity (lit. most illustrious).
teacher of sacred or profane subjects, often one attched to the patriarchate.
subordinate official employed in a government department.
subaltern judge, layman or ecclesiastic.
fiscal official, tax collector.
title often conferred on judges, anagrapheis, chartoularioi and notarioi.
monk in charge of a monastery’s cellar (see also bagenares and kellarites).
term designating various ecclesiastical and lay officials; in military hierarchy, the commander of a tagme.
the wife of a doux (also feminine form of the family name Doux).
category of peasants of disputed nature (agricultural slaves and freedmen holding land from their masters, or peasants working on estates?).
unofficial (?) title denoting close links with a high ranking official, usually the emperor (see also oikeios).
military commander of a region.
type of fast warship carrying 100 to more than 200 men.
the imperial post and transportation system of staging posts with fresh horses.
high military rank.
legal term referring to prominent officials in the army, government and church, often using their position to profit at the expense of weaker neighbours.
head of the imperial treasury and storehouse (eidikon – see epi tou eidikou).
Ek prosopou/Ek prosopon
deputy or representative of various lay or ecclesiastical officials and government departments.
title of a cleric (usually a priest) participating in the tribunal attached to Hagia Sophia (Constantinople).
sacristan, responsible for preparing the church and maintaining discipline during services.
literary genre, description usually of a building or a work of art.
official collecting certain customs duties and supervising the circulation of goods.
piece of jewellery worn around the neck usually bearing Christian imagery and often containing a relic.
literary genre, a panegyric or speech of praise of a person.
charge or tax on pasture land or on the right of pasturage.
ecclesiastical administrative unit encompassing a group of parishes in one or more villages, dependent on a larger ecclesiastical centre (bishopric or metropolis); often used to designate an entire bishopric too, as part of a metropolis.
official document, usually containing an imperial act.
city official, usually referring to the prefect or governor of Constantinople.
Epeiktes of the metata
official responsible for the management of state-supervised stables supplying horses and mules to the army.
high-ranking official often with juducial functions; also the lay administrator of a monastery, responsible for its economic management.
Epi tes augoustiakes trapezes
courtier responsible for the empress’s banquets (see also epi tes trapezes of the Augousta [e1419]).
Epi tes basilikes sakelles
official in charge of the imperial treasury.
Epi tes basilikes trapezes
courtier responsible for imperial banquets (see also epi tes trapezes [e1097]).
Epi tes megales hetaireias
official of the emperor’s bodyguard (hetaireia) perhaps a subordinate of the hetaireiarches.
Epi tes oikeiakes trapezes
courtier in charge of the emperor’s private banquets.
Epi tes patriarchikes sakelles
ecclesiastical official in charge of the treasury and religious foundations of the patriarchate of Constantinople.
Epi tes sakelles
Epi tes trapezes
courtier in charge of banquets (see also epi tes basilikes trapezes [e1560]).
Epi tes trapezes of the Augousta
courtier in charge of the empress’s banquets (see also epi tes augoustiakes trapezes [e1098])
Epi ton barbaron
senior official responsible for foreigners in the empire, especially at Constantinople.
Epi ton deeseon
official in charge of receiving and answering petitions on behalf of the emperor.
Epi ton kriseon
Epi ton oikeiakon
perhaps head of the imperial private treasury (see eidikos) or official responsible for the land of the fisc.
Epi tou Chrysotriklinou
court official in charge of the Chrysotriklinos (golden hall in the Great Palace of Constantinople) with unknown functions.
Epi tou eidikou
head of the imperial treasury and storehouse (eidikon – see eidikos).
Epi tou eidikou logou
official of the private treasury of the emperor.
Epi tou hippodromou
category of professional judges, presumably sitting in tribunal at the hippodrome of Constantinople.
Epi tou kanikleiou
one of the emperor’s private secretaries (lit. in charge of the imperial inkstand – see also kanikleios).
Epi tou koitonos
courtier serving in the emperor’s bedchamber (see also koitonites).
Epi tou manglabiou
commander of the manglabitai, a unit of the emperor’s bodyguard.
Epi tou oikeiakou vestiariou
official in the emperor’s private treasury and wardrobe.
Epi tou oikistikou
official in a department perhaps responsible for crown estates.
Epi tou Pantheou
military official or palace guard (see also pantheotes).
Epi tou patriarchikou sekretou
official of the patriarchate of Constantinople.
Epi tou sekretou
official in a government department.
Epi tou stablou
official of the imperial stables.
Epi tou vestiariou
official in the state warehouse and treasury (vestiarion).
Epi tou/tes/ton …
official in charge of a particular section, department or institution within the palace, goverment or church administration.
presumably identical to pinkernes, a courtier in charge of the emperor’s wine (cup-bearer).
fiscal term referring to an imperial estate (pl. episkepseis).
administrator of an imperial domain (episkepsis).
overseer of a monastery or a government department.
lay administrator of a monastery, in charge of its economic management.
free peasant-taxpayer often synonymous with paroikos.
fiscal official in charge of individual tax payments and reductions (see also exisotes).
commander of foreign mercenaries.
category of pious institutions.
rare term, probably an epithet rather than a dignity (lit. most favoured).
unit of weight.
high-ranking judge in imperial tribunal perhaps with some fiscal duties.
head of a guild or, in the ecclesiastical administration, official of the patriarchate.
fiscal official in charge of individual payments and reductions (see also epoptes).
member of a unit of the imperial guard, the exkoubitoi, under the domestikos of the exkoubitoi.
fiscal term denoting a tax exemption.
copper coin worth 1/24 of a miliaresion, discarded after the coinage reform of Alexios I (pl. folles).
Gambros of the emperor
semi-official title (lit. son-in-law of the emperor) used by the husbands of the emperor’s female relatives (daughters, sisters, nieces, etc.).
head of a district of Constantinople under the eparch or the demarchoi.
fiscal department dealing with land assessment, taxpayers’ lists and payment collection.
head of the genikon logothesion.
obscure official whose duties were probably related to cereal production.
measuring of land for tax purposes, land survey.
hospice for old people.
head of a gerokomeion.
title used for venerable elderly monks.
home for the elderly.
official in a gerotropheion (see also gerokomos).
scribe or secretary.
high-ranking title used among the southern Slavs.
monastic official (lit. fisherman) in charge of fish supplies (?).
official in charge of parts of the imperial palace, under the papias.
superior of a monastery (abbess/abbot).
austere form of asceticism based on unconditional devotion to God (lit. tranquillity).
unit of the emperor’s bodyguard initially largely made of foreigners and from the mid-11th c. of noble young men.
commander of the hetaireia, in charge of security at the imperial palace.
member (?) of the hetaireia.
official responsible for ordinations in the chancery of the patriarchate of Constantinople.
liturgical book containing the ordinary elements of the schedule of daily prayer for monks (the hours).
official in charge of state granaries.
modest honorific title.
Hypatos of the philosophers
head of the school of philosophy in Constantinople.
rare term, presumably an epithet rather than a dignity.
title used for church prelates.
monastic official in charge of weaving.
wedding gift of a man to his wife, usually equal to bewteen half and a third of the dowry (see also theoretron).
term referring to different types of documents, including petitions addressed to the emperor and patriarchal decrees.
official in charge of drafting documents at the patriarchate or other ecclesiastical institutions.
imperial dignity, perhaps to be equated with protospatharios.
unspecified year within the 15-year taxation cycle.
official at the patriarchate of Constantinople; also a courtier responsible for the emperor’s provisioning and apartments.
title reserved for the emperor’s closest male relatives; also bestowed upon important foreign rulers.
wife of a kaisar.
dignity held by officials in both the army and the civil administration.
one of the emperor’s private secretaries (see also epi tou kanikleiou).
wife of a kanikleios or an epi tou kanikleiou (?).
lead singer in a church choir and monastic officer in charge of the choir (precentor).
ecclesiastical tax paid by laity for the bishop’s maintenance.
fortress, citadel, or city in general (pl. kastra).
commander of a stronghold (kastron), responsible for its maintenance and for order.
wife of a katepano.
initially commander of a military unit, then governor of a major province (11th c.), and later (after c.1100) minor local official.
an hegoumenos” who had been previously ordained.
title used by the heads of the Armenian and Georgian churches, as well as some Armenian bishops.
cellarer; monk in charge of a monastery’s cellar (see also bagenares and docheiarios).
army or naval officer; also a civil official serving in the vestiarion.
unit of weight equal to 100 pounds (pl. kentenaria); sometimes used to denote a quantity of 100 pounds of gold or gold coins.
property that reverted to the fisc following its abandonment for more than 30 years by its tax-paying owner.
commander of a kleisoura.
mountain pass and territorial unit, often part of a theme.
generic term referring to various officials, mostly in the church hierarchy.
judge dealing with falsification of documents, supervision of visitors in Constantinople, family law and disputes between tenants and landlords.
courtier serving in the emperor’s bedchamber (see also epi tou koitonos).
boiled wheat with sugar, dried raisins, nuts, etc. distributed to the congregation usually following the commemoration of the dead.
official with various functions; also a low-ranking officer in the army or navy.
Komes of the lamia
official serving in the genikon, perhaps dealing with precious metals and mines.
Komes of the stable
head of the stables of Constantinople and Malagina, in charge of provisioning for animals during military campaigns.
Komes tes kortes
probably a civil official with judicial and police duties under a strategos.
fiscal official responsible for state warehouses, controlling imports and exports and collecting duties.
honorific title for dignitaries attached to the emperor’s household.
imperial title bestowed upon chamberlains of the patriarchate of Constantinople.
wife of a kouboukleisios.
manager of imperial estates; also official in state workshops.
high-ranking dignity bestowed upon members of the imperial family and important generals.
wife of a kouropalates.
wife of a krites.
professional judge; also a judge appointed to adminster a province.
official probably in charge of the management of imperial estates (see also kourator).
originally a type of monastery made of scattered cells associated to a central complex, but increasingly used to denote any large, usually rural, monastery.
official under the koiaistor, with notarial duties.
financial official serving in various government departments, in the provincial administration and in monasteries or private estates.
bureau of a logothetes.
high-ranking official at the head of a government department.
monk in charge of the kitchen and preparation of food at a monastery (lit. cook).
wife of a magistros.
head of a school or a workshop.
subordinate of an official or individual in a relation of personal dependence.
official employed on special occasions, sometimes with policing duties or as a guide for foreign envoys.
the Holy Towel, a piece of cloth allegedly bearing the imprint of Christ’s face and kept at Edessa before it was taken to Constantinople in 944 where it was kept in the Great Palace (Pharos chapel).
member of a unit of the imperial bodyguard under the epi tou manglabiou.
Master of the rhetors
one of the teachers (didaskaloi) in the patriarchal school of Constantinople.
wife of a megas droungarios.
high-ranking honorific title.
high-ranking honorific title.
high-ranking honorific title.
epithet attached to several officials heading their department or institution.
supreme military commander, second only to the emperor.
commander of the fleet.
commander of the fleet stationed in Constantinople.
title perhaps referring to the patriarch of Constantinople (lit. greatest shepherd).
official in a state factory or workshop; perhaps related to agricultural estates too.
high-ranking military commander, perhaps identical to a tourmarches.
semi-official title bestowed upon a high-ranking official entrusted with the administration of the empire.
small monastery subordinate to a larger independent establishment and under the jurisdiction of the latter’s hegoumenos (pl. metochia).
controller of measures.
silver coin equal to 1/12 of the nomisma, suppressed after the coinage reform of Alexios I.
obscure official perhaps in the provincial administration, especially of the theme of Anatolikon.
unit of measurement of varying quantity, used for both wheat and land, and also for the capacity of ships (pl. modioi).
general commanding several strategoi.
dependency of a monastery with a lesser status than that of a metochion.
term usually applied to the women who brought spices to the tomb of Christ; title used for women with certain duties at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (lit. unguent-bearer).
high-ranking official with notarial and judicial duties.
wife of a mystographos.
probably an assistant of a mystikos.
official with duties presumably related to those of mystikos and mystographos.
ship’s captain responsible for commissioning a ship, hiring the crew, and for shipping tolls.
palace official in charge of the emperor’s washbasin.
high-ranking dignity above that of kouropalates and below kaisar, initially reserved for members of the imperial family and later expanded to include supreme military commanders.
scribe or secretary.
the standard Byzantine gold coin known as hyperpyron from the late 11th c. (pl. nomismata).
office created in the 1040s for the head of the school of law at Constantinople, held by important canonists later on.
official (physician?) at a hospital.
scribe or secretary in a government department.
commander of the tagma of the noumera.
an imperial edict, a new (novel) law.
term related to the honorific title doulos.
official in the genikon, perhaps dealing with the administration of imperial domains.
regular yearly secondary tax, perhaps in kind.
official in charge of managing the estates and finances of an ecclesiastical foundation; steward of a monastery.
fiscal and economic term referring to an estate.
liturgical book containing the hymns for every day of the year except for Lent, Easter and Pentecost.
fiscal designation for a peasant who owned a donkey.
high-ranking lay official in Costantinople, and ecclesiastical official in the provinces (lit. head of an orphanage).
matins, daybreak service.
palace official responsible for introducing dignitaries to the emperor, and also title usually held by notarioi or protonotarioi.
tax on paroikoi.
monastic official whose duties remain obscure.
office related to the rental fees paid to property owners.
fair usually held on a major feastday or on that of the local patron saint.
wife of a panhypersebastos.
title created by Alexios I and bestowed upon members of noble families.
honorific title (feminine form of pansebastos sebastos).
military officer or palace guard; also a dignity (see also epi tou pantheou).
title often used by the patriarch of Alexandria (pope).
official responsible for the maintenance of palace buildings and for access to the palace precinct.
official in charge of the distribution and handover of estates to individuals.
semi-official title for imperial favourites.
assistant cellarer at a monastery (see kellarios/kellarites)
official in charge of the emperor’s bedchamber.
low-ranking military officer or official of the fisc.
official responsible for commercial shipping, toll payment and the import of goods by sea.
deputy sacristan (see also ekklesiarches).
deputy steward at a monastery (see also oikonomos)
dependent peasant, usually on estates of large landowners (pl. paroikoi).
wife of a patrikios.
female dignity for most senior attendant of the empress.
initially high-ranking dignity held by important governors and generals but then depreciated before disappearing in the 12th c.
delimitation of the boundaries of a property.
territorial unit for fiscal purposes.
cape-like vestment worn by priests and bishops, chasuble.
commander of the guard.
unit of measurement equal to ¼ of a modios and used for both wheat and land.
courtier in charge of the emperor’s wine (cup-bearer); see also epikerniou.
obscure official, with duties perhaps identical or similar to those of an ek prosopou.
imperial or patriarchal letter transmitting orders.
title designating a daughter born to a reigning emperor (lit. born in the purple).
title designating a son born to a reigning emperor (lit. born in the purple).
court official involved in palace ceremony.
civil adminstrator of a province, sometimes combining the offices of doux and katepano; the praitor of Constantinople was a judiciary official.
one of the main prisons of Constantinople, within the Great Palace compound.
inventory of estates belonging to individuals or institutions (usually monasteries), listing the taxes due and any exemptions, the land held (in the form of a periorismos) and the households of paroikoi living on the estates.
fiscal official involved with tax collection and perhaps with the measurement of land.
head of various groups of military, court, civil or church officials.
wife of a proedros.
initially high-ranking dignity (10th c.) that was later widely granted before disappearing in the later 12th c.; also ecclesiastical title used for bishops.
head of a bureau (sekreton).
estate supervisor; also a provincial official with fiscal or administrative duties.
grant of part of the tax revenue of a specific property and of its dependent households.
introduction to a literary text, letter or document.
special fiscal charge paid by paroikoi, perhaps for contributions to the revenues of high provincial officers.
administrative order, usually short imperial act.
head of the anagnostai.
dignity atttested primarily in the 11th c. and related to anthypatos.
rare term, probably referring to a high-ranking military commander.
cleric presiding over a tribunal of priests.
head of the college of asekretis and of the imperial chancery, responsible for producing chrysobulls.
head of the officials in various government departments.
head of the kensores.
head of the kentarchoi.
head of a kouratoreia (imperial estate).
dignity introduced in the 12th c. after the decline of kouropalates.
wife of a protokouropalates.
head of the college of mandatores.
office related to that of a mystikos.
high-ranking honorific title.
high-ranking honorific title related to nobelissimos.
head of the college of notarioi; the duties of a protonotarios of a theme involved the provisioning of the army and fleet.
high-ranking honorific title.
head of the priests of a church, parish or diocese.
head of the presbyters of a church or monastery.
wife of a protoproedros.
high-ranking title related to that of propedros.
Protoproedros of the dikaspoloi
head proedros of the judges.
leader of a choir in a church.
head of a group of monasteries and hermitages; also head of any professional group (lit. first).
high-ranking title usually bestowed upon close relatives of the emperor.
wife of a protospatharios.
initially high-ranking title that was devalued in the 11th c.
head of the officials in charge of the imperial stables (see strator).
high-ranking official of the patriarchate; also honorary title given to metropolitans.
most senior metropolitan in a patriarchate or archbishopric (after the patriarch or archbishop).
title related to that of vestarches.
title related to that of vestes.
high-ranking title bestowed upon important aristocrats.
head of the imperial bodyguard (see vestiarites).
military officer with policing duties; also a teacher in some Constantinopolitan schools.
singer in a church choir.
high-ranking courtier involved with the administration of the imperial palace.
official of the patriarchate of Constantinople in charge of relations with the imperial court.
remuneration to title holders and high officials distributed annually.
lay official involved with financial control in government departments; also a high-ranking official at the patriarchate of Constantinople.
wife of a sebastos or female version of the latter title.
high-ranking honorific title.
title created by Alexios I and bestowed upon the emperor’s closest male relatives.
wife of a sebastokrator.
an office in the 10th c., it became an honorific title in the 11th.
high-ranking honorific title usually bestowed upon members of the imperial family.
generic term for a civil official with primarily financial duties, and also for officials of the patriarchate.
bureau or department of the government, used for departments of the patriarchate too (pl. sekreta).
Turkish high-ranking office.
court official in charge of ceremonial, royal castles and finances (in the kingdom of Jerusalem).
high-ranking Turkish official.
official document bearing a seal.
signature in the form of a cross, usually by witnesses of official acts.
tunic with long sleeves usually made of silk.
sacristy at a church or monastery where vessels and other valuables were kept.
church official responsible for the vessels and vestments of a shrine.
high-ranking official with judicial duties.
annual grant from the emperor to ecclesiastical institutions, in either cash or tax revenues.
title bestowed upon low-ranking officials.
dignity bestowed upon courtiers accompanying the emperor.
term used for patriarchal monasteries to designate their independence from the local bishop or metropolitan.
commander-in-chief of the navy, admiral.
general (see strategos).
wife of a strategos.
military governor with financial and judicial responsibilities.
hereditary fiscal obligation attached to a property.
soldier; also a category of soldier-peasants.
official of the stratiotikon, a department dealing with the taxes of soldiers’ households.
high-ranking official heading the stratiotikon (see stratiotikos).
official in the imperial stables under the protostrator.
assistant to the eparch in his dealings with the guilds.
assembly of monks or clergy, most notably of the hegoumenoi and monks of Athos on particular feastdays, to discuss affairs of their monasteries.
high-ranking official of the patriarchate of Constantinople, nominated by the emperor.
notary responsible for registering transactions and certifying documents.
notary with a legal education, in charge of preparing documents.
military contingent usually attached to a theme, although the term is also used in the more general sense of regiment.
commander of a tagma.
official with police duties acting for a magistrate.
high-ranking military officer in command of 1,000 men.
official in charge of the Chalke prison, within the Great Palace complex at Constantinople.
two types of coin of that name are known, a lightweight gold nomisma before the coinage reform of Alexios I and thereafter a small lead and later copper coin (pl. tetartera).
territorial unit initially administered by a military commander and then by a civil governor.
wedding gift of a man to his first wife, in addition to the hypobolon [n120], that remained her property after the termination of the marriage; usually equal to at least one twelfth of the dowry.
official perhaps serving under the thesmophylax.
judicial official of the tribunal of the Hippodrome.
lieutenant of the military commander of a tagma, a theme or the navy, in charge of a small district or fortress.
wife of a topoteretes.
military commander with fiscal and judicial authority in his area of jurisdiction; also commander of a naval unit and a coastal area.
concave electrum and billon coin also known as scyphate (pl. trachea).
the refectory of a monastery.
monk in charge of setting the table at a monastery and waiting on his fellow monks.
military (?) official under the head of one of the prisons of Constantinople.
ceremonial or reception hall in a palace or mansion.
processional chant sung at the beginning of the eucharist.
charter containing the administrative and liturgical regulations to be observed by a monastic community (pl. typika).
high-ranking title that was devalued by the end of the 11th c.
high-ranking title bestowed upon important generals.
state warehouse and treasury.
official of the emperor’s vestiarion.
merchant of luxury garments.
fiscal designation for a peasant who owned a pair of oxen (pl. zeugaratoi).
tax paid by paroikoi zeugaratoi to either their landowner or to the state.
amount of land that can be ploughed by one pair of oxen.
see patrikia zoste.
see grand župan.